FLASH is an anthropomorphic social robot consisting of an EMYS head, two arms with four-fingered hands, and a torso based on a balancing mobile platform. The EMYS head is comprised of three discs and a set of eyes which can close, rotate and protrude out of the head. Detailed dimensions of the head can be found here: LINK. The arms as well as hands of the robot are tendon driven and primarily meant for gesticulation. The torso houses all of the drives responsible for arm operation. Additionally, it serves as a moutning point for the robot's audiovisual system (Kinect sensor, microphone array and speaker). Robot's base houses many of the robot's components such as: drives and IMU used for balancing, electronics responsible for low level functions (balancing, arm movements, power delivery, communication, etc.), on-board PC computer, laser rangefinder, etc. FLASH's dimensions are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

FLASH frontFLASH side

 Fig. 1 FLASH dimensions (front/side view).


Fig. 2 FLASH dimensions (top view).


FLASH joints

The robot possesses a total of 51 Degrees of Freedom (DoFs). 11 DoFs are located in the head and described in detail here: LINK. 7 DoFs are located in each of the two arms to recreate the full range of movement of its human counterpart. Each arm contains 5 DoFs responsible for shoulder and elbow movements and 2 DoFs responsible for wrist movements. FLASH's hands are primarily meant for gesticulation and therefore have 12 DoF each (3 DoF per finger). Balancing drive is based on a differential platform and has 2 DoFs. Joint numbers for FLASH's arms, hands, and balancing drive are shown in Fig. 3, Fig. 4, and Fig. 5 respectively. The arrow directions correspond to increasing joint position values. For more information about FLASH's motors see Drive system and to learn how to control each joint check out Communication


IDs arm

Fig. 3 FLASH arm joint structure.

Joint limits

Joint Joint name   Higher limit   Lower limit 
q1  Shoulder (rotation) -170 [deg] 170 [deg]
q2  Shoulder (pivot) -90 [deg] 90 [deg]
q3  Elbow (rotation) -170 [deg] 170 [deg]
q4   Elbow (pivot) -50 [deg] 130 [deg]
q5  Forearm (rotation) -170 [deg] 170 [deg]
q6  Wrist (rotation in plane with hand) -30 [deg] 30 [deg]
q7   Wrist (rotation orthogonal to hand plane) -30 [deg] 30 [deg]

IDs hand

Fig. 4 FLASH hand joint structure.

Joint limits

Joint Joint name   Higher limit   Lower limit 
q1  Index finger (tip rotation) 0 [deg] 90 [deg]
q2  Index finger (base rotation) 0 [deg] 90 [deg]
q3  Index finger (side-to-side rotation) -20 [deg] 20 [deg]
q4   Middle finger (tip rotation) 0 [deg] 90 [deg]
q5  Middle finger (base rotation) 0 [deg] 90 [deg]
q6  Middle finger (side-to-side rotation) -20 [deg] 20 [deg]
q7   Ring finger (tip rotation) 0 [deg] 90 [deg]
q8  Ring finger (base rotation) 0 [deg] 90 [deg]
q9  Ring finger (side-to-side rotation) -20 [deg] 20 [deg]
q10   Thumb (tip rotation) 0 [deg] 90 [deg]
q11  Thumb (side-to-side rotation) -20 [deg] 20 [deg]

Thumb (inwards rotation)

-0 [deg] 90 [deg]



IDs balancing

Fig. 5 FLASH balancing drive structure.



EMYS and FLASH are Open Source and distributed according to the GPL v2.0 © Rev. 0.8.0, 27.04.2016

FLASH Documentation